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Bone Tumor: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Myths

Discover all you need to know about bone tumors in this comprehensive guide. Learn about the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, and myths surrounding bone tumors. Whether you’re seeking information for yourself or a loved one, this article covers it all. Get insights into the types of bone tumors, their causes, stages, and the latest advancements in treatment. Separate fact from fiction with our debunking of common myths about bone tumors. Plus, find answers to frequently asked questions and learn how you can support someone with a bone tumor. Don’t miss out on this valuable resource for understanding and managing bone tumors.

Introduction:

Bone tumor are abnormal growths of cells within the bone that can disrupt normal bone function and structure. These tumor can be classified into two main categories: benign (non-cancerous) and malignant (cancerous). Benign bone tumor, while not spreading to other parts of the body, can still cause significant issues due to their growth and impact on bone integrity. Malignant bone tumor, on the other hand, pose a more serious threat as they have the potential to spread (metastasize) to different parts of the body, leading to more severe health complications.

Understanding bone tumor is crucial for several reasons. Early detection can significantly improve treatment outcomes and survival rates. Knowledge about the different types, causes, symptoms, and treatment options empowers patients and their families to make informed decisions and seek timely medical intervention. Moreover, awareness of bone tumor can lead to better support systems and coping strategies for those affected, enhancing their quality of life during and after treatment.

bone tumor

Table of Contents

Definition of Bone Tumor:

A bone tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue that forms within a bone. This growth arises due to the uncontrolled division of cells, which may originate from the bone itself or spread to the bone from other parts of the body. Bone tumor can be categorized into two primary types.

Benign Bone tumor are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. While they are generally less aggressive than malignant tumor, they can still cause problems by growing and pressing against nearby bone and tissues, potentially leading to pain, structural weakness, and other complications. Examples of benign bone tumor include osteochondroma and giant cell tumor.

Malignant Bone tumor, also known as bone cancers, are cancerous growths that have the potential to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. These tumor are more aggressive and pose a significant health risk. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are common types of malignant bone tumor. Malignant bone tumor can originate in the bone (primary bone cancer) or spread to the bone from another site (secondary or metastatic bone cancer).

Types of Bone Tumor:

Bone tumor can be categorized into two primary types: benign (non-cancerous) and malignant (cancerous). Each type has its own subcategories, characteristics, and implications for treatment and prognosis. Let’s explore these in detail.

Benign Bone tumor:

Benign bone tumor are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are generally less aggressive than malignant tumor but can still cause problems due to their size and location.

Osteochondroma: Osteochondroma is the most common type of benign bone tumor. It typically occurs during childhood and adolescence and often develops near the growth plates of long bones, such as the femur or tibia. Osteochondromas are usually painless and may go unnoticed unless they interfere with movement or cause discomfort.

Giant Cell Tumor: Giant cell tumor typically affect adults and often occur at the ends of long bones, particularly around the knee. Although they are benign, giant cell tumor can be aggressive locally and may recur after treatment. They can cause pain, swelling, and fractures in the affected bone.

Enchondroma: Enchondroma is a type of benign cartilage tumor that usually forms in the small bones of the hands and feet. It is often discovered incidentally during imaging for other reasons. Enchondromas rarely cause symptoms unless they lead to fractures or bone deformities.

Osteoid Osteoma: Osteoid osteoma is a small, benign bone tumor that commonly affects the long bones of the legs. It typically causes significant pain that worsens at night but can be relieved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Osteoid osteomas are often treated with surgical removal.

Malignant Bone tumor:

Malignant bone tumor, or bone cancers, are cancerous growths that can spread to other parts of the body. These tumor are more aggressive and pose a serious health risk.

Osteosarcoma: Osteosarcoma is the most common type of malignant bone tumor, frequently affecting teenagers and young adults. It typically arises in the long bones of the arms and legs, particularly around the knee. Osteosarcoma is aggressive and requires prompt treatment, usually involving a combination of surgery and chemotherapy.

Ewing Sarcoma: Ewing sarcoma is a rare and aggressive cancer that affects children and young adults. It often starts in the bones but can also arise in the soft tissues around the bones. Ewing sarcoma commonly occurs in the pelvis, femur, and chest wall. Treatment typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy.

Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma is a type of malignant bone tumor that originates in the cartilage cells. It primarily affects adults and can occur in any bone, but it is most commonly found in the pelvis, hip, and shoulder. Chondrosarcomas vary in their aggressiveness, with high-grade tumor being more likely to spread. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor.

Fibrosarcoma: Fibrosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor that originates in the fibrous tissue of the bone. It typically affects middle-aged and older adults and can occur in any bone, though it is most commonly found in the long bones of the legs and arms. Treatment often includes surgery and may be followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

Chordoma: Chordoma is a rare malignant tumor that develops from remnants of the notochord, a structure present during fetal development. Chordomas typically occur at the base of the skull or in the spine. These tumor grow slowly but can be difficult to treat due to their location. Surgery is the primary treatment, often followed by radiation therapy.

Secondary (Metastatic) Bone tumor:

Secondary bone tumor are cancers that have spread (metastasized) to the bone from other parts of the body. Common primary cancers that metastasize to the bone include breast, prostate, lung, kidney, and thyroid cancers. Metastatic bone tumor are treated based on the primary cancer type and the extent of the spread.

Causes of Bone Tumor:

The exact causes of bone tumor are not fully understood, but several factors have been identified that may increase the risk of developing these abnormal growths. These factors can be broadly categorized into genetic and environmental causes.

Genetic Factors

Inherited Conditions: Certain genetic conditions can predispose individuals to bone tumor. These inherited syndromes include:

  • Li-Fraumeni Syndrome: A rare disorder caused by a mutation in the TP53 gene, which significantly increases the risk of various cancers, including bone tumor.
  • Hereditary Retinoblastoma: A mutation in the RB1 gene increases the risk of retinoblastoma (a type of eye cancer) and osteosarcoma.
  • Multiple Exostoses (Multiple Osteochondromatosis): A condition characterized by the development of multiple osteochondromas, which can increase the risk of malignant transformation to chondrosarcoma.
  • Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome: A genetic disorder that increases the risk of osteosarcoma.

Genetic Mutations: Some bone tumor are associated with spontaneous genetic mutations that are not inherited. These mutations can occur randomly and lead to uncontrolled cell growth within the bone. For example, mutations in the IDH1 or IDH2 genes are found in many cases of chondrosarcoma.

Environmental Factors:

Radiation Exposure: Exposure to high doses of radiation, such as those used in radiation therapy for other cancers, can increase the risk of developing bone tumor later in life. This risk is particularly significant for children and young adults who receive radiation treatment.

Chemical Exposure: Certain chemicals and toxins, such as those found in some industrial environments, have been linked to an increased risk of bone tumor. However, these cases are relatively rare and more research is needed to understand the relationship between chemical exposure and bone tumor fully.

Previous Cancer Treatment: Individuals who have undergone treatment for other types of cancer, especially those who received radiation therapy or certain chemotherapy drugs, may have an increased risk of developing secondary bone tumor.

Other Potential Risk Factor:

Paget’s Disease of Bone: Paget’s disease of bone is a chronic disorder that can lead to enlarged and misshapen bones. People with Paget’s disease have a higher risk of developing osteosarcoma, particularly in older age.

Bone Injuries and Inflammation: Chronic inflammation or previous bone injuries may contribute to the development of bone tumor. While this connection is not fully established, it is believed that the prolonged healing process and cellular activity in response to injury may increase the likelihood of abnormal cell growth.

Viral Infections: Some studies suggest that certain viral infections, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), may play a role in the development of bone tumor, although more research is needed to confirm this link.

Symptoms of Bone Tumor:

Recognizing the symptoms of bone tumor is crucial for early detection and treatment. While symptoms can vary depending on the type and location of the tumor, some common signs and symptoms are associated with both benign and malignant bone tumor.

Pain and Swelling:

Persistent Pain: One of the most common symptoms of a bone tumor is persistent pain in the affected bone. This pain may initially come and go but often becomes more constant over time. It might be worse at night or during periods of activity. Unlike the pain from an injury, which typically improves over time, pain from a bone tumor tends to progressively worsen.

Swelling and Tenderness: Swelling in the area of the tumor is another common symptom. The affected area may be tender to the touch and appear visibly swollen. Swelling may not be immediately apparent if the tumor is located deep within the bone or in areas covered by thick muscle tissue.

Fractures:

Pathological Fractures: Bone tumor can weaken the bone structure, making it more susceptible to fractures, even with minimal trauma. These are known as pathological fractures. A sudden fracture may be the first indication of a bone tumor, especially if it occurs without a significant injury or in an unusual location.

Systemic Symptoms:

Fatigue: Fatigue is a common symptom, particularly in cases of malignant bone tumor. The body’s effort to fight the tumor and the tumor’s impact on normal body functions can lead to a general feeling of tiredness and lack of energy.

Fever: Unexplained fevers can sometimes accompany bone tumor, especially malignant ones. The fever may be low-grade and persistent, or it can occur in cycles. This is often due to the body’s immune response to the tumor.

Weight Loss: Unintentional weight loss can be a symptom of bone tumor, particularly malignant ones. This can result from the body’s increased metabolic demand as it fights the tumor or due to decreased appetite from systemic effects of the tumor.

Neurological Symptoms:

Nerve Compression: If a bone tumor is located near nerves, it can cause neurological symptoms due to compression. This might include numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb. tumor in the spine can compress the spinal cord, leading to more severe neurological issues such as difficulty walking or changes in bladder or bowel control.

Joint and Mobility Issues:

Reduced Mobility: tumor near or within joints can restrict movement and cause stiffness. The tumor can interfere with normal joint function, leading to difficulty in performing everyday activities.

Limping: For tumor in the legs, limping can be a symptom. This might be due to pain, swelling, or a fracture. Children with bone tumor often present with a limp, prompting further investigation.

Visible Changes:

Lumps and Masses: In some cases, a bone tumor might cause a noticeable lump or mass. This is more common with benign tumor that grow slowly and can become quite large before causing other symptoms.

Diagnosis of Bone Tumor:

Accurately diagnosing a bone tumor involves several steps, combining clinical evaluations, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. Early and precise diagnosis is crucial for determining the appropriate treatment plan and improving patient outcomes.

Initial Clinical Evaluation:

Medical History: The diagnostic process typically begins with a detailed medical history. The doctor will ask about the patient’s symptoms, including the onset, duration, and intensity of any pain or swelling. They will also inquire about any previous medical conditions, family history of cancer or bone disorders, and potential exposure to risk factors such as radiation or chemicals.

Physical Examination: A thorough physical examination is conducted to assess the affected area. The doctor will look for visible swelling, tenderness, or deformities. They will also check for signs of nerve compression, such as numbness or weakness, especially if the tumor is near the spine or other critical areas.

Imaging Studies:

X-rays: X-rays are often the first imaging study performed when a bone tumor is suspected. They can reveal abnormalities in bone structure, such as lesions, fractures, or unusual growth patterns. X-rays help differentiate between benign and malignant tumor based on the appearance of the bone.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): MRI provides detailed images of soft tissues, including the bone marrow and surrounding muscles, tendons, and nerves. It is particularly useful for evaluating the extent of the tumor and its impact on nearby structures. MRI can help distinguish between different types of tumor and guide biopsy procedures.

Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: CT scans offer detailed cross-sectional images of the bone and surrounding tissues. They are especially helpful for assessing complex bone anatomy and detecting small lesions that might not be visible on X-rays. CT scans can also aid in planning surgical procedures by providing precise anatomical details.

Bone Scan: A bone scan involves injecting a small amount of radioactive material into the bloodstream. This material accumulates in areas of high bone activity, such as a tumor. A special camera detects the radiation and produces images showing areas of abnormal bone metabolism. Bone scans are useful for detecting multiple lesions and assessing the spread of the disease.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan: PET scans use a radioactive sugar molecule to detect active cancer cells, which consume sugar at a higher rate than normal cells. PET scans are often combined with CT scans (PET-CT) to provide both functional and anatomical information. They are particularly useful for staging malignant bone tumor and evaluating the response to treatment.

Laboratory Tests:

Blood Tests: Blood tests can provide valuable information about the patient’s overall health and help identify specific markers associated with bone tumor. For example, elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) may indicate increased bone activity, which can be seen in both benign and malignant bone conditions.

Biopsy: A biopsy is the definitive method for diagnosing bone tumor. It involves removing a small sample of tissue from the tumor and examining it under a microscope. There are several types of biopsy procedures:

  • Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA): A thin needle is used to extract a small sample of cells from the tumor.
  • Core Needle Biopsy: A larger needle is used to remove a core of tissue, providing more material for analysis.
  • Surgical Biopsy: An open biopsy involves making an incision to remove a larger sample or the entire tumor.

The biopsy sample is analyzed by a pathologist to determine the type of tumor (benign or malignant) and its specific characteristics. This information is crucial for planning treatment.

Advanced Diagnostic Techniques:

Genetic and Molecular Testing: Advancements in genetic and molecular testing have enhanced the diagnosis and classification of bone tumor. These tests can identify specific genetic mutations or molecular markers associated with certain types of bone tumor, providing more precise information for treatment planning.

Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy: For certain types of bone tumor, such as Ewing sarcoma, a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy may be performed to determine if the cancer has spread to the bone marrow.

bone tumor

Stages of Bone Tumor:

Staging a bone tumor is crucial for determining the extent of the disease and planning appropriate treatment. The stage of a bone tumor is based on factors such as the size of the tumor, its location, whether it has spread to other parts of the body, and the tumor’s histological grade (how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope). The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system is commonly used for bone tumor, particularly osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma.

The Staging System: The AJCC staging system for bone tumor uses four key components, often abbreviated as TNM:

  • T (Tumor): Size and extent of the primary tumor.
  • N (Nodes): Involvement of nearby lymph nodes.
  • M (Metastasis): Spread of the cancer to distant parts of the body.
  • G (Grade): Histological grade of the tumor cells.

Stage I: Localized Low-Grade Tumor

Stage IA

  • T: Tumor is 8 cm or smaller.
  • N: No lymph node involvement.
  • M: No distant metastasis.
  • G: Low-grade (Grade 1), indicating less aggressive cancer cells.

Stage IB

  • T: Tumor is larger than 8 cm.
  • N: No lymph node involvement.
  • M: No distant metastasis.
  • G: Low-grade (Grade 1).

Stage II: Localized High-Grade Tumor

Stage IIA

  • T: Tumor is 8 cm or smaller.
  • N: No lymph node involvement.
  • M: No distant metastasis.
  • G: High-grade (Grade 2 or 3), indicating more aggressive cancer cells.

Stage IIB

  • T: Tumor is larger than 8 cm.
  • N: No lymph node involvement.
  • M: No distant metastasis.
  • G: High-grade (Grade 2 or 3).

Stage III: Multiple tumor

  • T: Multiple tumor in the same bone, regardless of size.
  • N: No lymph node involvement.
  • M: No distant metastasis.
  • G: Can be either low-grade or high-grade.

Stage IV: Metastatic Tumor

Stage IVA

  • T: Any size.
  • N: No lymph node involvement.
  • M: Cancer has spread to the lungs (pulmonary metastasis).
  • G: Can be either low-grade or high-grade.

Stage IVB

  • T: Any size.
  • N: Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes.
  • M: Cancer has spread to distant parts of the body beyond the lungs (e.g., other bones, liver).
  • G: Can be either low-grade or high-grade.

Implications of Staging:

Localized vs. Metastatic: The stage of the bone tumor significantly influences the treatment approach and prognosis. Localized tumor (stages I and II) have not spread beyond the bone and are typically easier to treat with surgery and possibly radiation or chemotherapy. The prognosis for localized tumor is generally better than for metastatic tumor.

Histological Grade: The histological grade of the tumor cells (low-grade vs. high-grade) also plays a critical role in staging and treatment decisions. High-grade tumor are more aggressive and more likely to spread, necessitating more intensive treatment.

Multiple tumor: Stage III, which involves multiple tumor within the same bone, presents unique challenges. Treatment may involve more extensive surgery and additional therapies to address the complexity of the disease.

Metastasis: Stage IV tumor, particularly those that have metastasized to distant organs, require a comprehensive treatment strategy that may include systemic therapies such as chemotherapy or targeted therapies, in addition to local treatments like surgery and radiation.

Treatment for Bone Tumor:

The treatment for a bone tumor depends on various factors, including the type of tumor, its size, location, stage, and the patient’s overall health and preferences. Treatment typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, combining surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and other targeted therapies to achieve the best possible outcome.

Surgery:

Surgical Resection:

  • Wide Excision: This involves removing the tumor along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it to ensure complete removal and reduce the risk of recurrence.
  • Limb-Sparing Surgery: Whenever possible, surgeons aim to preserve the affected limb by removing the tumor while preserving nearby nerves, blood vessels, and muscles. This approach helps maintain function and mobility.
  • Amputation: In cases where limb-sparing surgery is not feasible or the tumor is too large or invasive, amputation may be necessary to remove the tumor and prevent its spread.

Chemotherapy:

Chemotherapy involves the use of powerful drugs to kill cancer cells or inhibit their growth. It is often used in conjunction with surgery to shrink the tumor before surgery or after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells. Chemotherapy may also be recommended for advanced or metastatic bone tumor to slow down the progression of the disease and relieve symptoms.

  • Methotrexate
  • Doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
  • Cisplatin
  • Ifosfamide
  • Etoposide

These drugs may be administered orally, intravenously, or directly into the bloodstream (intrathecal chemotherapy) depending on the specific protocol and patient’s condition. Chemotherapy is typically given in cycles, with rest periods to allow the body to recover from side effects.

Radiation Therapy:

Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to target and destroy cancer cells. It is often used in combination with surgery or chemotherapy to enhance the effectiveness of treatment. Radiation therapy may be recommended for bone tumor that are difficult to remove surgically or for tumor located in areas where surgery is not feasible, such as the spine.

Targeted Therapy:

Targeted therapy involves drugs that specifically target certain molecules or pathways involved in cancer growth and progression. These drugs can interfere with the signaling pathways that drive tumor growth, leading to cell death or inhibition of tumor growth. Targeted therapies may be used alone or in combination with other treatments for certain types of bone tumor, such as osteosarcoma and chordoma.

  • Denosumab (Xgeva)
  • Pembrolizumab (Keytruda)
  • Imatinib (Gleevec)

These drugs work by interfering with specific cellular processes or signaling pathways that drive tumor growth. They are often used in combination with other treatments to enhance their effectiveness.

Immunotherapy:

Immunotherapy works by stimulating the body’s immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. While not yet widely used for bone tumor, ongoing research is exploring the potential of immunotherapy in the treatment of bone cancer, particularly in combination with other therapies.

  • Zoledronic acid (Zometa)
  • Pamidronate (Aredia)
  • Ibandronate (Boniva)

These drugs are typically administered intravenously and may be given on a regular schedule to maintain bone health.

Pain Management and Supportive Care:

Managing pain and providing supportive care are essential aspects of treatment for bone tumor. Pain medications, physical therapy, and supportive services such as counseling, nutritional support, and palliative care can help improve quality of life and alleviate symptoms associated with the disease and its treatment.

Pain Management Medications:

Managing pain is an essential aspect of treatment for bone tumor, particularly in cases where surgery or other treatments may not completely eliminate the tumor or its symptoms. Pain management medications may include:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Opioids
  • Steroids
  • Antidepressants
  • Anticonvulsants

These medications can help alleviate pain and improve the patient’s quality of life while undergoing treatment for bone tumor.

2024 Research and Advances in Bone Tumor Treatment:

Bone tumor research in 2024 is particularly promising, with several areas aiming to improve treatment efficacy and patient outcomes. Here’s a glimpse into some key advancements.

Targeted Therapies: Traditionally, bone cancer treatment relied on a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. These approaches, while effective, often come with debilitating side effects. Targeted therapies represent a more precise approach by focusing on specific mutations or proteins that fuel cancer growth. This research is ongoing, but some targeted drugs are already showing promise for specific bone cancers like chordoma and chondrosarcoma.

Nanoparticle Drug Delivery: Another area of intense research involves using nanoparticles to deliver chemotherapy drugs directly to cancer cells. These nanoparticles can be engineered to home in on tumor, potentially reducing the damage to healthy tissues. A recent study published in September 2023 demonstrated a new nanotheranostic platform that uses chitin-derived carbon dots to deliver a controlled release of two chemotherapy drugs to osteosarcoma cells, showing promise for improved treatment outcomes.

Engineered Bone Marrow: Researchers at UC Davis are exploring the use of engineered bone marrow (eBM) as a potential treatment for osteosarcoma. eBM can mimic the natural bone marrow environment, allowing scientists to better understand how bone marrow cells influence tumor growth and test the efficacy of new cancer therapeutics. This approach has the potential to revolutionize treatment personalization for osteosarcoma patients.

Myths and Facts for Bone tumor:

Bone tumor are complex conditions that can give rise to various misconceptions and myths. It is essential to separate fact from fiction to ensure accurate understanding and appropriate management of these tumor. Let’s explore some common myths and facts about bone tumor.

Myth: All Bone tumor are Cancerous
Fact: While some bone tumor are cancerous (malignant), not all bone tumor are cancerous. Benign (non-cancerous) bone tumor are more common than malignant ones. Benign bone tumor, such as osteochondroma and enchondroma, do not spread to other parts of the body and are usually less aggressive than malignant tumor.

Myth: Bone tumor Always Cause Pain
Fact: While pain is a common symptom of bone tumor, not all bone tumor cause pain, especially in the early stages. Some benign tumor may be painless and only discovered incidentally during imaging studies for other reasons. Additionally, the severity of pain can vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor.

Myth: Bone tumor Always Require Amputation
Fact: While amputation may be necessary in some cases of bone tumor, it is not the only treatment option. Limb-sparing surgery, which involves removing the tumor while preserving the affected limb, is often possible for many bone tumor, especially when detected early. Advances in surgical techniques and reconstructive procedures have made limb-sparing surgery increasingly feasible for patients with bone tumor.

Myth: Bone tumor Always Spread to Other Parts of the Body
Fact: While some bone tumor have the potential to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, not all bone tumor metastasize. Benign bone tumor, by definition, do not metastasize and remain localized.

FAQs about Bone Tumor

A1: Early signs of a bone tumor include persistent bone pain, swelling, and tenderness around the affected area. Sometimes, fractures may occur without significant trauma.

A2: While there is no sure way to prevent bone tumor, early detection through regular check-ups and genetic counseling can help manage the risk.

A3: Bone tumor originate in the bone, whereas other tumor may start in different tissues or organs and spread to the bone. Bone tumor have unique characteristics and treatment approaches.

A4: The success rate varies depending on the type and stage of the tumor. Early-stage tumor have higher success rates with treatment, especially when detected and treated promptly.

A5: Supporting someone with a bone tumor involves offering emotional support, helping with daily activities, and encouraging them to follow their treatment plan. Joining a support group can also be beneficial.

bone tumor

-Please remember, to always consult with healthcare professionals or Doctors for personalised advice related to medical conditions.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, understanding bone tumor is crucial for timely diagnosis and effective treatment. From recognizing symptoms to exploring treatment options, this guide provides valuable insights for patients and their families. By debunking myths and offering support, we empower individuals to navigate their journey with confidence. Stay informed, stay proactive, and remember, you’re not alone in facing bone tumor. Together, we can overcome challenges and strive for better outcomes in bone tumor management.

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